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  • Blood (Pink/Red/Brown) in the urine 

  • Severe pain in the back or groin

  • Nausea / Vomiting

  • Fever and chills if an infection is present

  • Frequent or painful urination

  • Foul-smelling urine

  • Urinating small amount of urine

General Diagnostic Methods

  • Blood Test, Urinalysis, Stone analysis

  • Adbominal X-ray [Kidney, Ureter, Bladder]

→ (if needed) Intravenus pyelogram (IVP)

→ Retrograde pyelogram

→ Ultrasound Exam (preferred test for pregnant women)

  • Initial CT scan (low-dose non-contrast) → (if needed) contrast-enhanced CT scan

Diagnostic of Renal Stone

  • Ultrasonography (USG)

    • Safe (no radiation), reproducible and inexpensive

    • Stones in the ureter?


  • Twinkling sign (artifact)

    • Increase in the sensitivity and specificity?

  • KUB

    • Sensitivity 44-77%, specificity 80-87%

    • Should not be performed if NCCT is considered

→ radiolucent vs radiopaque

→ pelvic phlebolith!!

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